General Race Procedure Rules
The following track procedures for 2016 events being promoted by TSWSI (The Speedway At Willow Springs Internation) located at
The Speedway at Willow Springs International Raceway. Unless different procedures are specified at the
Driver’s Meeting, these procedures must be followed at all TSWSI events. All on-track or race procedure
disputes, protests, or concerns, must be directed to the Race Director for his final decision within thirty (30)
minutes after the conclusion of all events.
1. Entering the pit area. All participants must purchase a pit pass and sign a release waiver of liability
prior to entering the pit area. All minor drivers must have a minors release form signed by both
parents, and on file with GIRT. Anyone buying a pit pass under any car number will be considered
part of that team.
2. Drivers meeting. All drivers and spotters must attend every meeting on race day. TSWSI reserves the
right to penalize any driver not in attendance by placing that car at the rear of the field for their
events in the Scratch position.
3. Spotters. All spotters must check in with an official for all events that require radios. All spotters
must have clearly marked car number on them. All spotters must be in the designated area during
their event. The assigned Spotters area is on the pit side located at the far South grandstand, adjacent
to Tech. Any spotter or crew member that does not abide by the Section 6, rules of conduct will be
asked to leave, along with the racecar/driver and all crew members.
4. Tech Inspection procedures. All cars are required to pass a pre-race technical/safety inspection
before entering the track. Drivers must accompany their car through tech. and bring all race gear.
5. Qualifying. Qualifying will consist of two timed laps, the best time recorded will be used. In the
event there are cars with identical fast times, the tie breaker will be the other qualifying time. Should
that time be identical as well, the drivers will draw for position. Driver’s must not attempt to qualify
more than one car per division, unless approved by GIRT. All car or driver changes must be reported
to Race Director prior to the lineup of qualifying, trophy dash, heat race, or main event.
5a Qualifying Order.
Rule 5a, Qualifying Order, will be only in effect when a division has more than 10 cars in the field,
or by announcement in the drivers meeting.
If Rule 5a is in effect, Qualifying order will be determined by your position in the point standings.
Any driver without points will go first, followed by the lowest driver in the point standings. If there are numerous drivers without points, the order of those cars will be achieved by draw. That order will continue making its way to the point leader, who will qualify last.
Point Standings for your division.
1. Car #77 55 points Will qualify last
2. Car #35 53 points Will qualify second to last.
3. Car #25 52 points Will qualify third to last.
4. Car #99 0 points Will qualify first.
5b Missed Qualifying. Any driver not ready to qualify when their turn comes will be allowed to qualify last. The driver will only be allowed one timed lap, and must be ready and in line before the
last qualifier for their division goes out. If a driver does not qualify in the appropriate time allotted for their division, or arrives at the event after qualifying, the driver will positioned in the “Scratch”
position in the line-up for all events, and will also not be awarded passing points in all events.
5c Post Qualifying Inspection. The fastest 3 qualifiers may be held in the inspection area. Director of Tech may pull an additional mystery guest to the inspection area after qualifying.
5d Late Arrivals. Late arrivals will not be allowed to qualify once their division has concluded its session. However, Race Director or Director of Tech, at their discretion, may permit testing laps should time in the schedule allow. If a car has not arrived 1 (one) hour prior to their scheduled first
race, TSWSI may not be able to guarantee a pit stall.
6. Pre-race lineup. All cars must line up in the designated restricted staging area prior to their respective qualifying, trophy dash, heat race or main event. Once a car has been called for line up, they must go directly to staging under their own power. No maintenance maybe performed while in staging area other than the following. One crew member per car may enter staging area to adjust air
pressures and assist the driver. Infractions in the staging area will result in relinquishing your starting position to the rear of the field. Any car not staged and ready to go when the race is called onto the track, will be started at the rear of the field. Race Director may allow a late car to enter the race under green ONLY if it is safe to do so. Driver and car are considered as one unless the Race director has
been notified of a change. In the event that a car drops out of the lineup, the cars behind that car will be moved straight forward, no crossing of the rows.
7. Initial Race Starts. The starter begins every race. All initial race starts take place on the front stretch when the green flag is waved. All initial starts will be double file at the speed of the pace car. Do not push the pace car. When the green flag is waved, cars may not pass the car in front of them until crossing the start line. In the event that a start is waived off, the yellow flag/light will be displayed. Any car deemed to be intentionally slowing on the field on a start, or moving out of line prior to the
green flag, will be sent to the rear of the field at the race director and starters discretion. Any car not taking the initial green flag will not be allowed to re-enter the race. If a driver is caught jumping a second time in the same event, they may be relegated to the pits.
8. Restarts. The lead car restarts every race. It is the lead drivers responsibility to accelerate at any point between the two stripes painted on the track in turn 4 (four). If the lead car elects not to accelerate between these two stripes, the starter will display the green flag and racing may begin. Cars may not be in the act of passing the car in front, to the left or to the right, prior to the green flag A car is deemed to be in the act of passing if the front bumper is even with, or in front of, the rear
bumpers of the car in front at the green flag. A car may pass to the left or to the right prior to the start/finish line after the green flag is displayed. Any car deemed in the act of passing to the left or passing to the right prior to the green flag being displayed, will be penalized two positions for every car passed at the next caution or the end of the race, whichever comes first. All restarts will maintain pace car speed until the green flag is waved. Any car deemed to be intentionally slowing the field on a start, or moving out of line prior to the green flag, will be sent to the rear of the field at the race director or starters discretion. Drivers choosing not to go to their designated position at an official’s request, will be sent to the rear of the field, or to the pits at the race directors discretion. If a driver is determined to be jumping a second time in the same event, they will be relegated to the pits.
8a. Restart Cone. We will employ the Restart Cone system (sometimes known as Caution Cone) used by numerous tracks across the Country in Main Events only. All restarts will be Double File.
After a yellow or red flag, the field will stay in standard single file formation until the restart order is determined by scoring. Once the order is determined and aligned, the Restart Cone will be placed in
turn 2 (two). As the field approaches the cone, the forward most driver then has the option to choose the high line (therefore going outside the cone) or the low line (therefore going inside of the cone).
Each driver that follows in line can then choose high or low as they approach the cone. Once the cone is passed, a driver may not change lanes. Once the car has passed the cone, that car may close
the gap to the car in front for that lane, and prepare for the restart. The field will be shown 1 (ONE) lap to green after the field is aligned double file and comes back to the start/finish line.
8b. Any car determined to be involved in the incident, and current yellow or red flag period, shall not be eligible for lane choice. All involved cars must restart at the rear of the inside row.
8c. Any car that has been in the pit area under caution shall not be eligible for lane choice. The car may not use the restart cone, and must start at the rear of the inside row.
8d. In the event one lap is not completed after a Caution Cone re-start, cars will lineup in the same double file positions for the new re-start.
9. Pace Car. When the pace car lights go out, or it pulls into the infield, the race will be going green the next time past the designated starting spot in turn 4. It is each driver’s responsibility to be ready to start at this time. All starts and restarts must be at the speed of the pace car. Do not push the pace car.
The leaders must maintain this speed throughout the entire start or restart. Failure to maintain the proper speed will result in the lead car being sent to the rear of the field. Any car called to the track entrance for consultation with the race director, may be permitted to pass the pace car during caution periods.
10. Accident Rules. Any driver deemed to be the cause of the caution will be sent to the rear of the field for the restart, if they are able to continue. The race director, director of competition, and the starter will make this decision, based on their view of the incident. Stopping to avoid an accident does not constitute being involved in a caution.
10a Intentional Altercations. Anyone who willfully or maliciously uses a racecar on the track or in the pits to injure, destroy or damage another person or property, will be suspended, fined, and/or expelled from
the property at the discretion of TSWSI management.
11. Three Caution Rule. Any driver that is involved in three yellow flags per event, for any reason, will be black flagged from the event and relegated to the pits. Cars stopping to avoid an accident or cars that get spun out by another car, are not required to leave the track after three cautions. Race director
and starter make the final determination regarding this rule.
12. Spin outs. Drivers that spin out must try to continue immediately and not stop the race. The starter or race director reserves the right to penalize any driver one lap for intentionally stopping the race.
13. Rough Driving. Any driver who is observed causing other drivers to spin or lose control of their car during a race or the cool down lap will be penalized to last place on the lead lap, fined, disqualified, and or suspended indefinitely at the discretion of Race control & GIRT. This rule also apples to lapped cars choosing to re enter the event or cars seeking retaliation for a previous incident. PLEASE
RESPECT OTHER DRIVER’S EQUIPMENT.
14. Passing. It is the responsibility of both the overtaking and the overtaken driver to assure safe passing at racing speeds. A driver being overtaken must give the overtaking driver a lane to race in. A car is ruled to have lost a position when the overtaking car’s bumper is even with the side door of the carbeing passed. Passing under the BUMPER is PROHIBITED. If a driver consistently attempts to pass
under the bumper, driver will be sent to the rear of the field.
Passing below the bumper, or driving into the dirt where a bumper has been removed is prohibited. Should a caution be called for debris on the racing surface, the car that was ruled to have created the caution will go to the rear of the field, and restart on the inside row. If a car was ruled to be forced down into the dirt by another competitor, both cars will go to the rear of the field, and restart on the inside row.
15. Black flag. A black flag will be given to any driver that is losing a part on their car, smoking, leaking, or to assess a penalty. When a black flag is displayed, that driver should immediately report to the Infield for details. Decisions on black flags will be made at the discretion of race control (race director, starter).
16. Pitting during a race. Any driver going to the pits under a yellow may return to the race at the rear of the field. Infield safety and towing may be used for the removal of loose body parts only.
17. Working on cars. All work on cars must be done in designated pit area. Cars may be worked on during a red flag condition. No one is allowed to work under a vehicle without safety jack stands in place. Jack stands must have a metal plate welded to the bottom of the legs. No crew members are allowed on the track unless requested by the race director.
18. Lapped drivers. All lapped cars must move to the outside groove to permit faster cars to pass. On restarts, lapped cars should remain in the field in their position. If a driver is shown the move over flag (blue with yellow diagonal stripe) for two consecutive laps and does not move to the outside groove, the driver will be black flagged.
19. Cars moving through the pits. Cars moving thru the pits will do so with extreme caution at a maximum speed of five mph. Any driver deemed to be driving dangerously, erratic, or in excessive speed, will be fined a minimum of $50.00 for the first infraction. No one, other than the driver, is allowed to ride in or on the race car at any time. Anyone not adhering to this rule risks disqualification from the entire events of that day/night. This includes riding on or in the race car
to and from fan appreciation.
20. Driver safety. Drivers may not get out of their cars while on the racing surface except in an emergency, or if an official requests them to exit their car. Drivers must remain with their car until it is removed from the track.
21. Driver/crew behavior. Any driver or team member causing any disturbance on the grounds of the speedway, with any official or TSWSI volunteer, may be suspended for a minimum of one event, possibly more.
22. Drain plugs. Please check all drain plugs and gas caps before every race to minimize cautions, and to enable all drivers more track time for their events. Any competitor oiling down the surface due to a missing drain plug is subject to a maximum fine of $1,000.00 and possibly disqualified from the
events of that day/night. TSWSI and your fellow competitors appreciate your cooperation and attention to these items.
23. Any situation not covered by these rules will be addressed at the discretion of TSWSI and the race officials. Their decision will be final.
Line Up Procedures
1. All cars should qualify for their specific division.
2. The top 14 qualifiers will transfer to A main. If more that 20 cars attempt to qualify, the remaining cars will run a B feature with the top 6 cars transferring to the A main.
3. B features will race a min of 3 laps to qualify for the A main, a maximum of 15 laps, or until there are only 6 cars remaining. All B features will start straight up.
4. Lineups-Main Events. Lineups for Main Events will be determined by Qualifying. We will start Main Events in a full invert except for cars that are determined to be off the pace, (See Rule 2-5), and cars that are Scratch.
5. Off the Pace. A car will be determined to be off the pace when the driver does not achieve a time, as compared to the fastest qualifier. The time will be announced at the drivers meeting prior to qualifying.
Fast Time 14.015
Window (To be announced at Drivers Meeting per division) 1 second
Off the Pace is any time slower than 15.015
In the example below, all cars Slower than 15.015 (cars 16t, 17t, 18t) will start at the back behind the fast qualifier, but ahead of any scratch cars, and will not receive any passing points for the event. In the example below, all cars Faster than 15.015 will be inverted, and will be eligible for passing points awarded in the event.
Main Event Line up
01 16 t
17 t 18 t
19 sc 20 sc
Cars 16t, 17t, and 18t fall under Rule 2-5, and are lined up behind the fast qualifier as designated by “t” (for “time”)
Cars 19, 20, and 21 are “Scratch” as designated by “sc”
6. Multiple cars off the Pace. When multiple cars fail to post a time within (TBA) seconds of the fast time, they will be lined up fastest to slowest, based on time, at the rear of the field ahead of any scratch cars. These cars will not be eligible for passing points.
7. Lineups-Heat Race. Lineups for Heat Races will be determined by Qualifying. We will start Heat Races in a full invert except for Scratch cars. Scratch cars will start behind the fast qualifier.
If an Even number of cars are entered in the event, the line up will be crossed as shown in the
Heat 1 Heat 2
16 14 15 13
12 10 11 09
08 06 07 05
04 02 03 01
Heat 1 Heat 2 Heat 3
24 21 23 20 22 19
18 15 17 14 16 13
12 09 11 08 10 07
06 03 05 02 04 01
1. Scoring laps. Every lap is scored when the leader has passed the finish under green flag. Yellow flag laps may be counted as described in rule 4 of section 3. If the field completes the first lap under green, the first lap shall be scored and any subsequent yellow flags shall result in the drivers lining up in single file in their designated position based on the last scored green flag lap
2. Passing under the yellow. Any driver attempting to improve their position while running under yellow will be warned and returned to their correct position. Failure to do so will result in a one lap penalty.
3. Restart lineups. All restart lineups will be derived from the head scorers lap sheets as the field crossed the finish line on the last completed green flag lap.
4. Counting yellow flag laps. Scoring will count the first five yellow flag laps of every caution period toward the total, only if a race consists of more than 40 laps.
5. Lapped cars. Lapped cars must go to the rear of the field for restarts when there are less than ten laps remaining in an event.
Tech Inspections and Protests
1. ALL cars, parts, components and equipment are subject to inspection at any time and in any manner. Visiting cars not conforming to current TSWSI rules will be addressed on a per case basis by the Technical Director.
2. Only Driver and One Crew person per car, approved by officials, will be admitted into the inspection area.
3. Officials will determine whether a car, including any parts, components, or other equipment, meets the specifications for an event as set forth in this rulebook. Such determinations may be made at any time before, during or after an event.
4. A competitor must take whatever steps are requested, including tear down of car, to facilitate inspection. This obligation includes, but is not limited to, installing inspection holes, inspection ports and or any other means of inspection of the roll cage bars, and engine components.
5. If an official determines prior to the race that the car, including any car part, component or equipment, does not meet the specifications, the car will not be permitted to compete unless the deficiency (a) will not adversely affect the orderly conduct of the race (b) will not provide the competitor with a significant competitive advantage, and (c) is so insubstantial as not to warrant a determination that the car is ineligible to race. If the official permits the car to compete under these
circumstances, the official will apprise the competitor of the deficiency, and if the deficiency has not been corrected by the next race, a penalty may be imposed and the car will not be permitted to compete until the deficiency has been corrected. All decisions of the chief tech inspector are final.
6. Chief tech inspector has the right, for inspection purposes, to seal or impound car parts, components, or equipment, entered and competed in an event. Officials or the promoter are not responsible for payment, reimbursement, damage, or loss to the competitor, as a result of such sealing or impounding.
7. All cars that competed in the event may be inspected at the conclusion of the event. If officials determine that any car part, component, or equipment, used by a competitor does not meet specifications, officials will declare the car ineligible for the event, resulting in loss of points and prize winnings. Any part deemed illegal will become the property of TSWSI.
8. Inspection and or eligibility decisions are final. All decisions made by TSWSI officials will be final and not open for appeal at the conclusion of the racing event. TSWSI officials have the right to postpone a ruling to have an independent party test the equipment in question. TSWSI officials will notify the competitor at the event if such action is taken.
9. Drivers and cars must be presented to tech in race ready form.
1. Numbers. All car number configuration and design is subject to approval by officials.
2. Single and double digit numbers only. Must be 18 inches high and positioned on both sides of the car, in the center of the door and on the roof of the car, and readable from right side of car. Numbers must be of contrasting color to the car body. No shiny, reflective or aluminum foil type numbers are allowed. If numbers cannot be read by scoring tower, the car will not be scored. If a GIRT official
notifies any car to change the number to a readable color, you must do so before entering the race track. Letters and three digit numbers will not be allowed unless special circumstances arise and are approved by the TSWSI race director for that event.
3. A 2015 TSWSI license is required. This is an effort to register your car number for points races for the season. First paid, first served. TSWSI reserves the right to require a competitor to use a different number at any time.
4. ROOKIES. Rear bumper must have a three inch x twenty-four inch yellow stripe attached.
5. Decals and advertising. TSWSI reserves the right to assign or restrict the display of decals, identification, or advertising, on racecars.
6. Contingency decals. Contingency sponsor decals or patches must be in place to receive awards and or prize money from contingency sponsors.
Conduct at Events
1. The driver shall be the sole spokesperson for their car owner and pit crew in any and all matters pertaining to an event. At all events the driver assumes responsibility for the actions of their team, this includes violations of any rules.
2. Fighting, rough driving, and any other acts of violence will not be tolerated. Penalties will be issued based on the severity of the incident including but not limited to, fines, and or suspensions of driver/car and all crew members. All fights will be reported to the Kern County Sheriff’s office for investigation.
3. No driver or crew member may be under the influence of alcohol, drugs or any other controlled substances while competing at the facility. Any impaired driver or crew member will be suspended for a period of no less than one race.
4. Failure to report to the tech area for a post race inspection, or failure to present tech officials with a part upon request, will result in loss of points and purse for that event. At no time is a car owner/driver or crew member allowed to enter the scoring tower or flag stand to dispute a decision while official race business is being conducted. All protests and disputes will be resolved after the
final race of the event.
5. Any car that dispenses anti-freeze coolant on the racing surface will be fined $250.00 for the
infraction, payable to TSWSI before next scheduled racing event.
6. All fines must be paid prior to 7 days of next scheduled racing event to compete in that event.
7. Any car losing weight ballast onto the racing surface will be fined, payable to TSWSI 7 days prior to next scheduled event. All ballasts must be painted white with the car number clearly contrasting.
8. Online Presence – We ask your respect of our track sponsorship businesses that support our racing Online criticism of Primary Sponsors of The Speedway at Willow Springs International are not acceptable, and will be subject to fines and point penalties depending on severity. Drivers, as always, are responsiblefor their team.
Track Championship Points
1. Season Track Championships – The Driver MUST be Registered with TSWSI in order to receive Season Championship Points. This is a separate registration from normal nightly pit entrance paperwork. ONLY Registered Drivers are eligible for Championship Points. Please register at Pit Gate office.
2. B main All drivers that compete in B main and do not transfer to the A main will be awarded 5 points.
3. Eligible Cars. In order to receive points and purse for any event, the car must be present at staging, and be able to move under its own power from the starting grid. Starting grid will be defined as staging area.
3a. Qualifying Points. Qualifying Points will be awarded only for the 4 (Four) fastest qualifiers as follows. 4 (to the fastest qualifier), 3 (to second fast), etc. Qualifying positions after 4th will receive zero qualifying points.
3b. Heat Race Points. Heat race points will be awarded for the top 4 (Four) finishers in each heat race as follows. 4 points to the winner, 3 to second, etc. Finishing positions after 4th will receive zero heat race points.
3c. Main Event Points. 2 (Two) points are available for every car in the race. Example: If there are 10 (ten) cars entered in the race, then a total of 20 (Twenty) points would be awarded for the win, 18 (Eighteen) points for second, etc.
3d. Passing Points. Passing points will be awarded for each position gained at the completion of the Main Event. One point for each position gained in the event.
Example: If a car started the event and took the green flag in 10th , and the checkered fell and the car was 5th, you would receive 5 (five) bonus points. (one point for each position gained in the event). Any car starting Scratch, or moved behind the fast qualifier under the qualifying time rule (“off the pace” Section 2-5), will not be eligible to receive any passing points.
4. Special Events. Special events and double main events may have a modified point system or require
a modification to the line up. If a modified system is to be used for a particular event, all drivers will
be notified ahead of the event.
5. Retired cars. If in the event numerous cars retire from an event in a single incident, the finishing positions will be determined by where each car crossed the line on the last green flag lap before the incident.
6. Receiving Points. Points will be awarded to the primary driver of each car.
Safety Equipment for all Divisions.
No express or implied warranty of safety shall result from the publication of or compliance with these rules and regulations. They are intended as a guide for the conduct of the sport and are in no way a guarantee against injury or death to participants, spectators or others. Whenever there is a conflict
between a safety provision provided herein and any other rule, the safety provision shall take precedence. It will be the sole responsibility of the driver, not TSWSI/Willow Springs/or their agents/officials to ensure that their safety equipment is correctly installed, maintained and properly used,
Please refer to manufacturer installation and usage guidelines and adhere to them. Car and driver will be required to make any safety rule violations comply prior to racing in any event.
1. Helmet. It is recommended that helmets meet the specifications set forth in the federal motor vehicle safety standard regulations or meet the specs set forth by the American National Standards Institute. All helmets must have a minimum M2000 or SA2000 with nomex. You must wear a fire resistant head sock. Eye protection is mandatory and must be in place at all times.
2. Head and neck restraint systems.
A. The use of an approved head and neck restraint system such as the Hans device or Hutchens system is strongly recommended. A horse collar is required, Donut preferred.
B. Window nets are mandatory. Minimum one inch webbing with quick release at top only, located facing outside of car to front of car window.
C. No off road style mesh type nets are allowed.
D. Window nets must be in good condition per tech inspection.
3. Fire suits
Fire suits are required at all times. The driver must wear a driving suit and gloves of fire resistant material that effectively covers the entire body. Must meet SFI 3-2A/1. It is also recommended that each driver wear fire resistant underwear, shoes and head sock.
4. Seat Belts and shoulder harnesses.
A. A quick release belt no less than three inches wide is mandatory. Both ends of the lap belt must be fastened to the roll bar cage with high quality grade 5 min. bolts no less than 3/8 “ diameter
and 1/8” min. safety cable. All seat pan mounting bolts must have a min 2” flat washer installed between head of bolt and seat pan.
B. Shoulder harnesses must be no less than 3” wide and must come from behind the drivers seat. Where the harness crosses the roll cage, it must pass through a steel guide welded to the roll cage
that will prevent the harness from sliding side to side. Shoulder harness inertia reels are not permitted.
C. A center (crotch) belt must be securely mounted to the lower seat frame at the bottom and to the lap seat belt on the top.
D. Where the belts pass through the seat edges, it must have a grommet installed, be rolled and or padded to prevent the cutting of the belt.
E. All seat belts and shoulder harnesses must connect at the lap belt with an approved quick release buckle.
F. Seat belts must be secured to roll cage and or to seat frame. Seat belts must not be fastened to floor pans, drive shaft tunnels, or any sheet metal.
G. All seat belts must be dated by the manufacturer, and must be replaced after 3 (three) years of manufacture date.
H. Aluminum professionally built high back racing seat with padded headrest is required in all TSWSI divisions. Seat may not be attached to the floor pan. Seat installation to be approved by TSWSI chief technical inspector.
5. Fire Control
A. It is recommended that each car have, within driver’s reach, a built in fire extinguishing equipment containing Halon 1211 or equivalent. NO dry powder permitted.
B. Any car that is not equipped with a built in fire extinguisher must have an adequate fire extinguisher securely mounted within reach of driver. The fire ext. must be secured using a metal quick release bracket only.
C. All entrants must have in their pit area, at all times, a fully charged min. 10 pound dry chemical, Halon, or equivalent fire ext. within 10 feet of racecar and immediately accessible.
D. It is recommended that at all times while fueling or transporting fuel in the pit area that all crew members involved with the fuel should wear all fire resistant suit, gloves, shoes, and a head/face shield, covering the entire body.
6. Electrical cut-off switch
A. All cars must be equipped with a master cut-off switch, center accessible, from either side of car The cut-off switch must completely disconnect electrical power and must be clearly marked with an “on/off” label. Cut-off switch will be inspected and must shut off engine.
A. Drivers side mirrors are allowed in all divisions, but must be inside outer
edge of body.
A. Two way radios are mandatory in the following division: Late Models
B. Drivers and spotters should not monitor race control with a radio capable of transmitting, as interference issues mandate this.
9. Oil Lines
A. All external oil lines must be either metal or steel braided. No plastic lines allowed.
10. Fire Walls
A. Interior of cab must be totally isolated and sealed from engine and fuel cell compartments. Must be covered with sheet metal by means of welding or pop rivets. Integrity of firewall must remain intact. Super and late models refer to 10-1-8